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AAPG Bulletin, V.
Salt structures and hydrocarbon accumulations in the Tarim Basin, northwest China
1State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, China University of Petroleum, Fuxue Road No. 18, Changping, Beijing, Peoples Republic of China; [email protected]
2State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, China University of Petroleum, Fuxue Road No. 18, Changping, Beijing, Peoples Republic of China; [email protected]
3Tarim Oilfield Company of PetroChina, Korla, Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China; [email protected]
4Northwest Oilfield Company of Sinopec, Urumqi, Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China; [email protected]
5State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, China University of Petroleum, Fuxue Road No. 18, Changping, Beijing, Peoples Republic of China; [email protected]
6BP America Inc., Westlake Park Boulevard, Houston, Texas; [email protected]
The Tarim Basin is one of the most important hydrocabon-bearing evaporite basins in China. Four salt-bearing sequences, the Middle and Lower Cambrian, the Mississippian, the Paleogene, and the Neogene, have various thickness and areal distribution. They are important detachment layers and intensely affect the structural deformation in the basin. The Kuqa depression is a subordinate structural unit with abundant salt structures in the Tarim Basin. Salt overthrusts, salt pillows, salt anticlines, salt diapirs, and salt-withdrawal basins are predominant in the depression. Contraction that resulted from orogeny played a key function on the formation of salt structures. Growth strata reveal that intense salt structural deformation in the Kuqa depression occurred during the Himalayan movement from Oligocene to Holocene, with early structural deformation in the north and late deformation in the south. Growth sequences also record at least two phases of salt tectonism. In the Yingmaili, Tahe, and Tazhong areas, low-amplitude salt pillows are the most common salt structures, and these structures are commonly accompanied by thrust faults. The faulting and uplifting of basement blocks controlled the location of salt structures. The differences in the geometries of salt structures in different regions show that the thickness of the salt sequences has an important influence on the development of salt-cored detachment folds and related thrust faults in the Tarim Basin.
Salt sequences and salt structures in the Tarim Basin are closely linked to hydrocarbon accumulations. Oil and gas fields have been discovered in the subsalt, intrasalt, and suprasalt strata. Salt deformation has created numerous potential traps, and salt sequences have provided a good seal for the preservation of hydrocarbon accumulations. Large- and small-scale faults related with salt structures have also given favorable migration pathways for oil and gas. When interpreting seismic profiles, special attention needs to be paid to the clastic and carbonate interbeds within the salt sequences because they may lead to incorrect structural interpretation. In the Tarim Basin, the subsalt anticlinal traps are good targets for hydrocarbon exploration.
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