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Mineralogy of Bottom Sediments, Hudson Bay, Canada
Bottom samples from 450 stations in Hudson Bay were studied by X-ray diffraction powder methods. The clay minerals are chiefly illite and kaolinite with smaller amounts of montmorillonite and chlorite. Quartz, feldspar, dolomite, calcite and amphibole are the main non-clay mineral components. No mineralogical zonations correlating with the known bedrock exposed on the bottom of Hudson Bay was found.
Statistical analysis by factor analysis showed three natural groupings of the minerals as follows: feldspar, quartz and amphibole; calcite and dolomite; and clay minerals. These can be correlated with the mineralogy of the rocks surrounding the shoreline. A similar conclusion was reached earlier by Pelletier (1969), who observed that ice-rafted sediments are most common within the nearshore area and reflect the nature of the underlying and bordering bedrock.
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