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Environmental Geosciences, V.
Baseline characterization of the CO2SINK geological storage site at Ketzin, Germany
Andrea Frster,1 Ben Norden,2 Kim Zinck-Jrgensen,3 Peter Frykman,4 Johannes Kulenkampff,5 Erik Spangenberg,6 Jrg Erzinger,7 Martin Zimmer,8 Jrgen Kopp,9 Gnter Borm,10 Chris Juhlin,11 Calin-Gabriel Cosma,12 Suzanne Hurter13
1GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, 5.2 Geothermics, Telegrafenberg, Potsdam, Germany; email@example.com
2GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafanberg, Potsdam, Germany
3Danmarks og Grnlands Geologiske Undersgelse, ster Voldgade 10, Copenhagen, Denmark
4Danmarks og Grnlands Geologiske Undersgelse, ster Voldgade 10, Copenhagen, Denmark
5GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafanberg, Potsdam, Germany
6GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafanberg, Potsdam, Germany
7GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafanberg, Potsdam, Germany
8GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafanberg, Potsdam, Germany
9Landesamt fr Bergbau, Geologie und Rohtoffe, Stahnsdorfer Damm 77, Kleinmachnow, Germany
10GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafanberg, Potsdam, Germany
11Uppsala University, Villaragen 16, Uppsala, Sweden
12Vibrometric Oy, Sitratori 3, Helsinki, Finland
13Shell International Exploration and Production B. V., Kesslerpark 3, Rijswijk, Netherlands
Andrea Frster has been a staff scientist at the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam since 1992. She received her Dr. rer. nat. in geotectonics in 1985 and a Dr. habil. in geology in 1999, both from the Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitt in Greifswald, Germany. She worked 5 years in industry in the seismic exploration for hydrocarbons, before joining a basin analysis and modeling group at the Academy of Science of the German Democratic Republic in 1989. In 1996 and 1998, she was a visiting research scientist at the Kansas Geological Survey at the University of Kansas. Her current research involves the Earth's thermal field and related subjects, such as heat flow and applied geothermics. She is also involved in the investigation of geology for the storage of CO2.
Ben Norden received a degree in geology (diploma) from the University of Hamburg, Germany, in 1999. Since 2000, he works at the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam. He received a master of engineering degree from the University of Applied Sciences Cologne in 2003 and a Dr. rer. nat. in geosciences from the Freie Universitt Berlin in 2004. His research interests include heat flow, fluid flow, and numerical modeling in sedimentary basins.
Kim Zinck-Jrgensen is a senior advisor in reservoir geology at GEUS–the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland. He received his M.Sc. degree in 1989 on structural geology and carbonate sedimentology from University of Copenhagen. He has mainly worked with structural analysis and reservoir characterization of chalk reservoirs.
Peter Frykman works as a senior research geologist at GEUS–the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland. He received his Ph.D. in 1986 on carbonate sedimentology and diagenesis from University of Copenhagen. He has worked mainly with chalk carbonates, geostatistics, and geoengineering, including petrophysics, reservoir modelling, and fluid flow.
Johannes Kulenkampff has been with the GeoForschungszentrum Potsdam from 2001 to 2005. Presently, he is a staff scientist at the Institute of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research in Leipzig, Germany. He received his degree in geophysics (diploma) and his Dr. rer. nat. in petrophysics from the Clausthal University of Technology, Germany. He currently works on transport phenomena (flow, diffusion, reaction) in porous media and barrier rocks, using positron emission tomography (GeoPET).
Erik Spangenberg has been a staff scientist at the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam since 1995. He received his degree in geophysics (diploma) from the Mining Academy Freiberg, Germany, in 1989 and his Dr. rer. nat. in petrophysics from the University of Braunschweig in 1995. His current work involves flow phenomena in porous media and the influence of fluid-rock interactions and phase transitions in the pore fluid on the rock physical properties.
Jrg Erzinger is a professor of geochemistry at the University of Potsdam and head of research section 4.2 at the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam since 1992. He received his Dr. rer. nat. in geochemistry from the University of Karlsruhe, Germany, in 1981. His current main research interest is on the geochemistry of fluids and gases.
Martin Zimmer received his Dr. rer. nat. in mineralogy in 1993 from the Justus-Liebig-Universitt in Giessen, Germany. Since 1993, he has been employed at the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, where he manages an ICP-MS laboratory for analyses of trace elements in geological samples. He participated in several research projects on gas chemistry and gas monitoring during drilling as well as on chemical monitoring of high-temperature volcanic gases.
Jrgen Kopp is head of the Department of Subsurface Geology and Core Repository at LBGR–the Survey of Mining and Geology of Brandenburg (Germany) since 1991. He received his Dr. rer. nat. in petrography/petrology in 1985 from the Humboldt University of Berlin. Between 1970 and 1990, he has worked in the ore and hydrocarbon exploration; between 1980 and 1990, he was employed at the Academy of Sciences of the German Democratic Republic. His current research focuses on regional geology of the state of Brandenburg.
Gnter Borm is the director of the Department Geoengineering at the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam and is a professor of rock mechanics at the University of Karlsruhe, Germany. He received his Dr. rer. nat. in geophysics and a habilitation degree in rock engineering. He is the coordinator of the European Union's FP6 Integrated Project CO2SINK–In situ RD Laboratory for Geological Storage of CO2 as well as of the German Bundesministerium fr Bildung und Forschung Joint Project COSMOS - CO2 Storage, Monitoring and Safety Technologies and the German Bundesministerium fr Wirtschaft und Arbeit COORETEC Joint Project CORTIS - CO2 Recovery, Transportation, Intermediate Storage, and Conditioning. He served as a review editor of chapter 5 (Underground geological storage) of the IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage.
Chris Juhlin received his Ph.D. in geophysics from Uppsala University, Sweden, in 1990 and is currently a professor of geophysics there. He worked for Continental Laboratories in the Williston Basin, USA, in 1980 and 1981. During 1986 to 1988, he has worked as a geophysicist for the Swedish State Power Board. He did his postdoc at Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia (1991–1992) and is also adjunct professor there since 2000. His research interests include crustal geophysics, hard rock seismology, shallow seismics, seismic modeling, and borehole geophysics.
Calin-Gabriel Cosma is president of Vibrometric OY Cosma, a geophysical company located in Finland and Canada. He received his M.Sc. degree in physics in 1979 and his Ph.D. in natural sciences in 2000, both from the University of Bucharest. He had served as associate professor at Laval University, Canada, from 2001 until 2004 and as a consultant/project manager at INCO Technical Services, Canada, from 1998 to 2000. His expertise is in mineral and geothermal exploration as well as in site characterization for radioactive waste repositories.
Suzanne Hurter is a senior scientist (reservoir engineer) at Shell International Exploration and Production in Rijswijk, Netherlands. She obtained a Ph.D. in geology in 1992 at the University of Michigan, USA. Most of her research activities were developed in academic and research organizations and were related to modeling heat and fluid transport in sedimentary basins and volcanic systems. Since she joined Shell in 2003, she has been working with various aspects of CO2 injection in saline aquifers for emissions mitigation.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the generous funding and technical support of the CO2SINK Integrated Project by the European Commission and by the CO2SINK industrial partners RWE Power AG, Shell International Exploration and Production, Statoil ASA, Vattenfall Europe, and Verbundnetz Gas AG.
Since April 2004, preparatory work prior to CO2 injection has been conducted in the CO2SINK Project, the European Union's first research and development activity on the in-situ testing of geological storage of CO2 near the town of Ketzin, Germany. Carbon dioxide will be injected into a saline aquifer of the Triassic Stuttgart Formation in an anticlinal structure of the northeast German Basin. The drilling of one injection and two observation wells will commence at the end of 2006. The predrilling phase focuses on the baseline geological parameters of the anticline. The Stuttgart Formation is lithologically heterogeneous; it consists of sandy channel-(string)-facies rocks, with good reservoir properties alternating with muddy flood-plain-facies rocks of poor reservoir quality. Playa-type rocks form the immediate cap rock above the CO2SINK reservoir. A geostatistical approach has been applied to describe the reservoir architecture between and beyond well control. This model forms the basis for the generation of reservoir-dynamic models of CO2 injection that assist in the planning of injection operations and in the understanding of CO2 plume evolution. A verification of the geometry of the reservoir and the structural situation of its overburden is expected from a three-dimensional baseline seismic survey that was conducted in the autumn of 2005. Laboratory experiments under simulated in-situ conditions were performed to evaluate the geophysical signature of rocks saturated with CO2. The chemical composition of the groundwater and the CO2 flux in the soil were analyzed across the Ketzin anticline, providing the baseline for a monitoring program during and after injection of CO2, targeted at the detection of potential CO2 leakage from the storage reservoir.
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