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Miller Quarles, Jr. (1)
The interpretation of faults on reflection seismograph records is made complex and difficult by the recording of a dozen or more different forms of energy which originate among sub-surface structures but which are not direct reflections from sedimentary layers. Two of these types of recordings which may be far more significant than we now recognize are shown clearly on groups of records shot in East and South Texas. The first type appears as an alignment of pulses dipping successively steeper across several profiles and is caused by diffraction originating at a fault face. The second type is apparent very steep dip resulting from a combination of refraction along a formation and reflection back from a fault face. These recorded energy patterns plus others can be helpful instead of confusing to fault interpretation if they are recognized and evaluated correctly.
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