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Clays and Secondary Recovery
Clays may play an important role in operations for secondary recovery of oil. The change in physical properties that is effected by the introduction of flood water into a clay-containing sandstone reservoir rock is determined by the kind and amount of clay, chemical quality of the invading water and above all, by the distribution or fabric arrangement of the clay within the rock. Clay minerals are the most chemically active component of the clay-size (5 micron) fraction in sandstones and are classified into five groups: montmorin, illite, kaolin, vermiculite, and chlorite. The evaluation of the importance of clays in secondary recovery operations should be a part of the data-gathering preparation because clay-derived damage to reservoir rocks is irreversible. Various techniques for defining the role of clays are presented.
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