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The Goddard Formation is Mississippian in age (middle through late Chesteran) as determined from the ranges of the conodont species Adetognathus unicornis and Cavusgnathus naviculus. The Springer Formation is latest Chesteran through early Morrowan (Pennsylvanian) in age. The systemic boundary is placed at, or near, the base of the Lake Ardmore Member of the Springer Formation. Pre-Lake Ardmore strata are characterized by the Chesteran conodont species Adetognathus unicornis and Gnathodus girtyi intermedius. Early Morrowan conodonts, including Spathognathodus muricatus, Adetognathus lautus and Idiognathoides noduliferus, characterize the Target Limestone Lentil of the Lake Ardmore Member of the Springer Formation.
The name "Academy Church Shale Member" is proposed for the uppermost shale unit of the Springer Formation. This shale is lithologically and paleontologically distinct from the lower Springer shale units and the Goddard Formation.
The Goddard and Springer Formations are grouped together on the basis of their strong lithologic similarities. The term "Noble Ranch Group" is proposed to include those strata from the top of the Caney Shale to the base of the Primrose Member of the Golf Course Formation (i.e., Goddard and Springer Formations).
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