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The AAPG/Datapages Combined Publications Database

AAPG Bulletin


Volume: 65 (1981)

Issue: 5. (May)

First Page: 919

Last Page: 919

Title: Epigenetic Zoning in Surface and Near-Surface Rocks Resulting from Seepage-Induced Redox Gradients, Velma Oil Field, Oklahoma: ABSTRACT

Author(s): Terrence J. Donovan, Alan A. Roberts, Mary C. Dalziel

Article Type: Meeting abstract


Surface and near-surface Permian sandstone has been drastically altered over the productive part of the structurally complex Velma oil field as a consequence of petroleum microseepage. Buried Permian sandstone along the northwest-southeast-trending anticline is cemented with abundant pyrite and isotopically anomalous ferroan calcite and ferroan dolomite. At the surface along the anticlinal crest, iron sulfide is scarce; carbonate-cemented sandstone is overlain by sandstone that is massively impregnated by hematite cement. Permian sandstone is normally reddish brown throughout southern Oklahoma, but along the anticlinal flanks it has been bleached yellow and white owing to iron loss; some units contain abundant solid bitumen.

The mineralogy in the vertical section over the anticline follows the calculated stability relations for iron oxides, sulfides, and carbonate along a gradient from strongly reducing conditions at depth to oxidizing conditions at the surface. Reducing conditions were readily provided by seeping hydrocarbons from subsurface reservoirs of this multizone giant field. Production depths range from 120 to 2,180 m. The principal evidence that these are seepage-induced alterations is provided by reports of oil seeps in the early literature, by zones of solid bitumen cements, and by ^dgrC13 PDB values for carbonate cements that range from -7.8 to -36.7 ppt.

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