About This Item
Share This Item
The Ravia nappe in Bryan County, Oklahoma, is located along the southwestern flank of the Tishomingo uplift, between the Cumberland and East Durant oil fields. This mass of Cambrian-Ordovician through Mississippian sediments tectonically overlies younger Springer shales (Pennsylvanian) of the Ardmore basin. Previously, this feature has been interpreted to have been thrust southward along the Cumberland fault, a fault parallel to the Ravia thrust. Reinterpretation of this area, with additional well data, indicates the Ravia nappe is a gravity slide block off the uplifted Tishomingo mountains.
The Ravia nappe subcrops below the Cretaceous unconformity as a 16 mi2 (41 km2) triangular-shaped mass with a maximum thickness of 4,800 ft (1,450 m). The fault surface along its base has a bowl-like shape. This surface is neither the Cumberland fault nor the Ravia fault, but appears to be a separate fault surface. The nappe consists of overturned Caney through Simpson rocks (Mississippian-Ordovician) along its southwestern edge (toe), whereas right-side-up Arbuckle carbonates (Cambrian-Ordovician) occur on the northeastern side (heel) of the nappe. Arbuckle carbonates of the nappe overlie an overturned-to-the-south syncline of Arbuckle through Springer rocks. This overturned syncline, on the footwall side of the Ravia fault, is present north of the Cumberland oi field and trends southeastward into Sec. 9, T6S, R8E. At this location the structural style of the Tishomingo footwall rocks changes from an overturned syncline south of the Ravia thrust to another thrust with a footwall fold. The Ravia thrust possibly terminates near this change in structural style with the other northeast-dipping thrust continuing southeastward to the East Durant oil field.
The Ravia nappe is interpreted to have been originally the southwest overturned limb of the Tishomingo uplift. Prior to the major thrusting on the Ravia thrust, but after compressional folding and uplift of the Tishomingo mountains, a breakaway fault formed across the most intensely folded beds. This breakaway fault undercut the overturned southwestern limb of the Tishomingo uplift in a concave-upward fault surface. Gravitational forces caused the Ravia nappe Mississippian Caney rocks to Cambrian-Ordovician Arbuckle rocks to slide rotationally southwestward 2.5 mi (4 km). Topographic relief prior to the slide may have been as much as 9,000 ft (2,700 m). The slide occurred sometime during late Morrowan to early Desmoinesian.
Analogs of this type of deformation are present in the Owl Creek Mountains, central Wyoming; Front Range, northern Colorado; Qal'eh Raisi, southwestern Iran; and Belton anticline and Sulphur syncline, Oklahoma. These analogous structures and the Ravia nappe, show three common elements: (1) they are competent, erosion-resistant units which slide off the flanks of folded anticlines across softer shaly units; (2) the heel portion of the slide surface is a bedding plane fault, whereas the toe of the slide surface cuts across bedding planes; and (3) the driving mechanism is the gravitational force associated with tectonic uplift.
End_of_Article - Last_Page 1325------------