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Midale (Mississippian) production was first indicated in 1953 in Saskatchewan, Canada. The productive unit was defined initially in the subsurface as the carbonate interval between the top of the Frobisher Anhydrite and the base of the Midale Anhydrite. This same nomenclature is used in this paper. In 1953, Midale production was found on the United States side of the Williston basin in Bottineau County, North Dakota. Later exploration extended Midale production westward into Burke County, North Dakota, in 1955. Cumulative production from the Midale is approximately 660 million bbl with 640 million from the Canadian side of the Williston basin.
Initially, hydrocarbon entrapment in the Midale was believed to be controlled by the Mississippian subcrop, with the Burke County production controlled by low-relief structural closure. Petrographic examination of cores and cuttings from the Midale in both Saskatchewan, Canada, and Burke and Bottineau Counties, North Dakota, indicates that production is controlled by facies changes within the unit. Use of a transgressive carbonate tidal-flats model best explains current production patterns and indicates substantial potential for additional production in eastern North Dakota and South Dakota.
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