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Sedimentary rocks of the Kincaid Formation crop out along the northern and western edges of the Rio Grande Embayment. Siltstones are exposed at the type locality of the Kincaid Formation along the Frio River in Uvalde County, Texas. On the east and south, the Kincaid Formation changes facies to richly fossiliferous carbonate rocks; however, basinward, it grades into a shale facies that contains interbedded units of fine-grained sandstone.
At the type locality of the Kincaid Formation, approximately 30 ft (9 m) of massive siltstone grades upward into a very silty limestone unit. The outcrop is characterized by four resistant units of tightly cemented siltstone and limestone, which separate beds of less resistant, massive siltstone. Bedding is poorly defined throughout the section, largely the result of intensive bioturbation. The grain size of the siltstone increases upward, ranging from medium to coarse. Clay content in the siltstone decreases upward as the amount of calcareous material increases. The upper 4-6 ft (1.2-1.8 m) may actually be considered a silty limestone.
A dramatic facies change is present along the outcrop both east and south of the type section. To the east, the Kincaid Formation is composed of glauconitic and highly fossiliferous limestone. The siltstone present at the type locality thins eastward and is absent less than 20 mi (32 km) away. Eighty miles (130 km) to the south, along the Rio Grande River, approximately 45 ft (14 m) of limestone and shale comprise the Kincaid Formation. The limestone is glauconitic and highly fossiliferous and is very similar to that exposed east of the type locality.
These early Paleocene sediments are interpreted to be shallow marine in origin. The siltstone represents a shallow sublittoral shoreface environment whereas the limestones on the east and south were deposited in shallow nearshore environments beyond the reach of clastic deposition.
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