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Subsurface cores were studied petrographically to determine the facies and diagenetic history of the Trenton Limestone on a regional scale in northern Indiana.
The Trenton Limestone is a yellowish olive-gray fossiliferous limestone, which is replaced by a light-gray dolostone in northern Indiana. Facies composing the Trenton are: (1) bryozoan-echinoderm packstone, (2) bryozoan-echinoderm grainstone, (3) bryozoan packstone to wackestone, (4) lime mudstone, and (5) dolostone. The bryozoan-echinoderm packstone is the major facies. As many as three muddying-upward (packstone to mudstone) sequences occur. Whether the muddying-upward sequences represent regional or local energy conditions is not known. Coarse-grained (1-4 mm) grainstones are typically 1 ft (30 cm) thick, have abrupt bases, and become muddy upward. They are considered storm deposits. Hardgrounds occur throughout the limestone facies, but they are most numerous toward the base. Thes facies indicate deposition below wave base, interrupted by periods of high energy during storms. Fossiliferous white and gray chert nodules are scattered throughout the unit. Also found in the limestone facies are prevalent stylolites and microstylolites, an indication of chemical compaction.
The dolostone facies consists of coarsely crystalline (0.4 mm) idiotopic dolomite. Rhombs have cloudy centers and thin clear rims. Pyrite is associated with the dolomite. Porosity, found only in the dolostone, is discontinuous and characterized as intercrystalline, vuggy, and moldic. Porous zones are commonly oil stained or have been plugged by poikilotopic selenitic gypsum. Minor amounts of celestite are found as cavity fillings.
The upper Trenton surface has high concentrations of pyrite and phosphate minerals and is interpreted to have been a submarine corrasion surface.
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