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Northwest of Edmonton, Alberta, in the Valhalla area, recent drilling has proven the Upper Cretaceous Doe Creek Member of the Kaskapau Formation to be an oil-bearing sandstone. Based on core examination, the oil-bearing sandstone is interpreted to have been deposited on the transition from lower shoreface to inner shelf adjacent to a progradational wave-dominated coastline. Mapping indicates a northeast-southwest-trending reservoir sandstone body. The reservoir sandstone is a well-sorted fine-grained sublitharenite. The principle framework mineral
is monocrystalline quartz and the matrix components are ferroan calcite, siderite, and kaolinite. Porosity appears primarily secondary in nature. Core analysis has shown 23% average porosity and 210 md permeability. Oil-base cores indicate an irreducible water saturation of 44% and residual oil saturation of 22%. In the area of study, estimated reserves are 22.27 million m3 of oil in place.
The produced oil has a density of 844 kg/m3, a viscosity of 3.3 cp, and a gravity of 37° API. The produced oil is undersaturated in relation to gas and the initial reservoir pressure was 3,960 kPa. The absence of a gas cap and an active aquifer has resulted in implementation of a secondary-recovery waterflood mechanism based on a 5-spot injection pattern. Primary recovery is estimated to be 10%, with an additional 31% from waterflood.
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