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AAPG Bulletin, V. 83 (1999), No. 8 (August 1999), P. 1279-1283.

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Structural Features of Northern Tarim Basin: Implications for Regional Tectonics and Petroleum Traps: Discussion1

Mark B. Allen and Stephen J. Vincent2

©Copyright 1999.  The American Association of Petroleum Geologists.  All Rights Reserved

1Manuscript received March 2, 1998; revised manuscript received June 29, 1998; final acceptance March 16, 1999.
2China Basins Project, Cambridge Arctic Shelf Programme, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EQ, United Kingdom; e-mail: [email protected]

INTRODUCTION

Dong Jia et al. (1998) proposed that the Tarim basin forms a giant sinistral push-up structure with strike-slip faults bounding its south and north margins (the Altun and Aheqi fault zones, respectively) and linked thrust systems at the western and eastern terminations of these systems (the western Kunlun and Kuluketage) (Dong Jia et al., 1998, their figure 1). They go on to describe structures from northern Tarim that usually are discussed only in Chinese petroleum industry publications on the basin (e.g., Tang Liangjie et al., 1991), and interpret these structures to have formed due to strike-slip deformation related to activity on the Aheqi fault zone (some workers refer to this fault zone as the South Tian Shan fault) (Tang Liangjie et al., 1991). There is no dispute that a major Cenozoic fault system lies at the northern margin of the Tarim basin; however, there are several aspects of Dong Jia et al.'s (1998) presentation and interpretation of this structure that are debatable. In particular, we question the extent to which Cenozoic strike-slip deformation operates to the south of and parallel to the Aheqi fault zone.

Most of their (Dong Jia et al., 1998) paper is an area-by-area review, and we comment on these areas in their original order.

AHEQI STRIKE-SLIP FAULT SYSTEM

There is no published evidence that the Aheqi fault zone continues westward across the Pamirs and into the Hindu Kush, as depicted in Dong Jia et al.'s (1998) figure 1. Instead, the Aheqi fault zone is truncated by the dextral Talas-Fergana fault (e.g., Burtman et al., 1996). Contrary to the distribution of the schematic faults depicted on Dong Jia et al.'s (1998) figure 1, the southern Tian Shan contains many active thrusts that have created a mountain range with summits greater than 7000 m. At the eastern end of the Aheqi fault zone, Dong Jia et al. (1998) depicted northeast-directed thrusts in the Kuluketage and Central Tian Shan. We find no trace of these faults on published maps, where northwest-southeast- and west-northwest south-southeast- trending faults are strike-slip faults (commonly dextral) or southwest-directed thrusts (Xinjiang Weiwuer Zizhiqu Dizhiju, 1977; Tapponnier and Molnar, 1979); furthermore, it has never been thoroughly demonstrated from seismic data, field-observed structures, or satellite image analysis that the Aheqi fault zone is indeed a Cenozoic sinistral structure. Dong Jia et al. (1998) seem to follow others in inferring this from the regional tectonics, especially the subparallel nature of Aheqi and Altun (Altyn Tagh) faults. We agree that sinistral motion is a likely scenario, but think that it needs better demonstration.

We do not find any evidence for distributed sinistral motion south of the Aheqi fault zone. We discuss the Kalpin (Kepingtage) uplift in a following section, but note here that there is no field or seismic evidence for major extensional deformation around Baicheng, which should be present if Dong
 
 

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fig01.jpg (2078 bytes)Figure 1--Geologic map of the central part of the Kalpin uplift. Structure is derived from Landsat imagery and our field-work observations. Stratigraphy from unpublished Chinese 1:200,000 scale geological maps. Dashed box shows area of Figure 2.
 
 

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Jia et al.'s (1998) interpretation of a pull-apart basin is correct. Published sections across the Baicheng depression (Tang Liangjie, 1996) show only compressional structures, consistent with the region being a piggyback basin between the South Tian Shan fault and thrusts at the southern margin of the Kuche depression; furthermore, we do not consider that the Aheqi fault zone has the correct geometry to produce the releasing- and restraining-bend elements essential for the model of Dong Jia et al. (1998).

Flexure of alluvial fans by a putative Tarim River fault is a surprising proposal. Our Landsat imagery of the area shows that true alluvial fans are all located considerably north of the river. Some of the fans are asymmetric, but this is due to their position on the northern side of axial northwest-southeast drainage systems, not tectonic dislocation.

KALPIN UPLIFT

Dong Jia et al. (1998) stated that the obvious southward vergence of structure in the Kalpin uplift is overprinted by strike-slip. This is completely at odds with the historical seismic of the region, which clearly shows thrusting toward the basin interior with only a minor component of oblique slip (Tapponnier and Molnar, 1979; Chen Wang ping and Molnar, 1983; Fan et al., 1994). Our own Landsat studies and field observations within the Kalpin uplift (Figure 1) also do not support major strike-slip motion parallel to the trend of the imbricates. We observed minor faults, slickensides, and parasitic folds all consistent with dip-slip transport. Additionally, we doubt that it is physically possible to transport a block of sedimentary rocks approximately 5 km thick, 30 km wide, and 100 km long laterally over an equivalent section for 80 km without major deformation of the overthrust block, yet this is required by the restoration of Dong Jia et al. (1998).

The Piqiang fault does not die out within the Kalpin uplift, as depicted on Dong Jia et al.'s (1998) figures 2 and 3, but clearly cuts the frontal Kepingtage fault (also known as the Shajingzi fault). Our field-work observations indicate that the Piqiang fault is a subvertical sinistral structure that separates the Kalpin uplift into two parts (Figures 1 and 2) and is seismically active. We suggest it has formed coevally with the major thrusts and helps accommodate a minor difference in slip vector of the crustal blocks to either side. The lateral continuity of the fault is obvious, making it an incredible coincidence that it could have originated as two separate structures within separate fault blocks that became superimposed after tens of kilometers of overthrusting and strike-slip motion, yet this is demanded by the restorations shown in Dong Jia et al.'s (1998) figure 3.

KUQA DEPRESSION

The (unlocated) field sketch used to support the argument of sinistral motion in the Kuqa depression [Dong Jia et al.'s (1998) figure 7] departs from a normal pattern of R, X, and P shears, which might accompany a sinistral fault (Woodcock and Schubert, 1994). Because the fractures interpreted as R and X shears are not shown as offsetting any features (including each other), they resemble conjugate shear joints. Some previous interpretations of the Kuqa depression have included backthrusts, i.e., thrusts that dip southward toward the interior of the Tarim basin (e.g., Zhang Ximing et al., 1997). These are not present in the interpretation of Dong Jia et al. (1998). This difference is hard for an independent observer to resolve without access to reasonable quality seismic data, rather than the interpretations that are normally published.

NORTH TARIM UPLIFT

We agree with Dong Jia et al. (1998) that the North Tarim uplift shows evidence for pre-Cenozoic transpression, but we are less sure about the inferred kinematics. Proposed late Paleozoic sinistral shear might be contemporary with the regional Late Permian sinistral motions suggested by Sengör et al. (1993), and regarded by Allen et al. (1995) as responsible for the formation of the Junggar, Turfan, and Alakol basins in a transtensional setting. If this is correct, it remains to be explained why there was transtension north of the Tian Shan at the same time as transpression to its south. Evidence for middle Permian compressional deformation in northern Tarim was provided by Wang Xiepei and Yan Junjun (1995), who demonstrated an angular unconformity between Lower Permian and Upper Permian strata on the Ketuer fault. Whatever the exact timing of this Paleozoic motion, it is simplistic to refer to a Junggar or Kazakhstan plate, now that it is clear that there are two late Paleozoic orogenies preserved within the Tian Shan, and the region to its north is a complex collage of largely juvenile Paleozoic crust (Sengör et al., 1993).

Dong Jia et al. (1998) used Woodcock and Fischer's (1986) concept of trailing imbricate fans to suggest phases of sinistral and dextral motion. The faults shown as forming the "fans" are in the east and west of the North Tarim uplift, depicted as Paleozoic and Triassic in age, respectively. The problem with this interpretation is that there are
 
 

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published sections that show Mesozoic motion on flower structures in the eastern region and Paleozoic motion in the west. For example, Wei Guoqi et al. (1995) showed an apparent flower structure at the western end of the North Tarim uplift being truncated by the basal Mesozoic unconformity, whereas at its eastern end the Luntai fault and the Akekumu and Akekule structures have been active into the Jurassic (e.g., Sun Baoshan, 1991). There is no general agreement on the kinematics of these structures, and other workers have depicted general sinistral deformation along the northern part of Tarim (e.g., Wei Guoqi et al., 1995). Published work to date has never presented a strong case for the sense of motion one way or another; we can only be sure that the structures revealed on isolated two-dimensional sections are strongly reminiscent of the flower structures seen in better documented areas of transpression. It is feasible that both sinistral and dextral deformation could occur at the same time on reactivations of preexisting faults with appropriate orientations. This is occurring at present in the Tian Shan, where several major northwest- or west-northwest-trending faults are dextral, whereas east-southeast-trending faults are sinistral. Both fault sets are apparently reactivations of Paleozoic structures, deforming at present in response to the north-south compression produced by the India-Asia collision.

In summary, there is no evidence for major orogen- parallel sinistral strike-slip motion in the Kalpin uplift and Kuqa depression. Seismic and field data support major southward-directed thrusting, instead. Paleozoic and Mesozoic transpressional deformation within northern Tarim is obvious from seismic evidence, but the exact timing, kinematics, and regional causes remain to be clarified. The active tectonics of the region are a useful guide to its previous behavior. Preexisting structures of suitable orientation can be reactivated with a dextral
 
 

Fig02.jpg (3310 bytes)Figure 2--Landsat MSS (multispectral scanner) image of the western part of the Kalpin uplift showing the major thrusts and crosscutting Piqiang fault (AA'). Image shown is approximately 185 x 185 km in area. Location shown on Figure 1.
 
 
 
 

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or sinistral sense as appropriate, under the action of a north-south compressive stress generated by a distant collision.

REFERENCES CITED

Allen, M. B., A. M. C. Sengör, and B. A. Natal'in, 1995, Junggar, Turfan, and Alakol basins as Late Permian sinistral pull-apart structures in the Altaid orogenic collage, central Asia: Journal of the Geological Society, v. 152, p. 327-338.

Burtman, V. S., S. F. Skobelev, and P. Molnar, 1996, Late Cenozoic slip on the Talas-Ferghana fault, the Tien Shan, central Asia: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 108, p. 1004-1021.

Chen Wangping, and P. Molnar, 1983, Focal depths of intracontinental and intraplate earthquakes and their implications for the thermal and mechanical properties of the lithopshere: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 88, p. 4183-4214.

Dong Jia, Lu Huafu, Cai Dongsheng, Wu Shimin, Shi Yangshen, and Chen Chuming, 1998, Structural features of the northern Tarim basin: implications for regional tectonics and petroleum traps: AAPG Bulletin, v. 82, p. 147-159.

Fan, G., J. F. Ni, and T. C. Wallace, 1994, Active tectonics of the Pamirs and Karakoram: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 99, p. 7131-7160.

Sengör, A. M. C., B. A. Natal'in, and V. S. Burtman, 1993, Evolution of the Altaid tectonic collage and Palaeozoic crustal growth in Eurasia: Nature, v. 364, p. 229-307.

Sun Baoshan, 1991, Relations between tectonic stress fields and oil-gas migration and accumulation in north Tarim basin, in Jia Runxu, ed., Research of petroleum geology of northern Tarim basin in China: structural and petroleum geology: Beijing, China University of Geoscience Press, p. 57-66.

Tang Liangjie, 1996, Tectonic evolution and structural styles of Tarim basin: Beijing, Geological Publishing House, 136 p.

Tang Liangjie, Huang Taizhu, and Wang Shimin, 1991, Features of fault structures and their controlling effect on the occurrence of hydrocarbons in northeastern Tarim basin, in Jia Runxu, ed., Research of petroleum geology of northern Tarim basin in China: structural and petroleum geology: Beijing, China University of Geoscience Press, p. 39-48.

Tapponnier, P., and P. Molnar, 1979, Active faulting and Cenozoic tectonics of the Tien Shan, Mongolia, and Baykal regions: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 84, p. 3425-3459.

Wang Xiepei and Yan Junjun, 1995, Structural framework of major faults in northern Tarim basin, Xinjiang: Earth Science, v. 20, p. 237-242.

Wei Guoqi, Jia Chengzao, and Yao Huijun, 1995, The relation of thrust-strike slip structure and hydrocarbon potential in late Hercynian in north area of Tarim basin: Xinjiang Petroleum Geology, v. 16, p. 96-101.

Woodcock, N. H., and M. Fischer, 1986, Strike-slip duplexes: Journal of Structural Geology, v. 8, p. 725-735.

Woodcock, N. H. and C. Schubert, 1994, Continental strike-slip tectonics, in P. L. Hancock, ed., Continental deformation: Oxford, Pergamon Press, p. 251-263.

Xinjiang Weiwuer Zizhiqu Dizhiju, 1977, Geological map of the People's Republic of China: Wulumuqi K-45-B, scale 1:500,000, 1 sheet.

Zhang Ximing, Liu Qingfang, Wang Guiquan, and Ye Desheng, 1997, Formation, distribution and prospecting potential of Mesozoic-Cenozoic reservoirs in northern Tarim basin: Xinjiang Petroleum Geology, v. 18, p. 302-306.
 
 

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AAPG Bulletin, V. 83, No. 8 (August 1999), P. 1284-1286.

Structural Features of Northern Tarim Basin: Implications for Regional Tectonics and Petroleum Traps: Reply1

Dong Jia,2 Huafu Lu,2 Chengzao Jia,3 and Guoqi Wei2

©Copyright 1999. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.
1Manuscript received November 16, 1998; revised manuscript received December 15, 1998; final acceptance March 16, 1999.
2Department of Earth Sciences, The Oil-Gas Research Center, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, People's Republic of China; e-mail: [email protected]
3Tarim Petroleum Exploration and Development Bureau (CNPC), Kurla 841000, People's Republic of China.
This paper is part of the project of Meso-Cenozoic Geodynamic Coupling Between the Tarim Basin and the Tianshan, supported by National Science Foundation of China (approval number 49832040). We thank Guo Lingzhi, Shi Yangshen, Qian Xiangling, and Wang Liangshu for their valuable suggestion and discussion. We also thank Mian Liu and Yang Xiangning for improving this manuscript.

INTRODUCTION

We appreciate Allen and Vincent's (1999) interest in our work. Here, we address their questions in four aspects: (1) Aheqi strike-slip fault zone, (2) Kalpin uplift, (3) Kuqa depression, and (4) North Tarim uplift.

AHEQI STRIKE-SLIP FAULT ZONE

It is an open question whether the Aheqi fault zone extends westward across the northern margin of the Pamir, trending into the Farah fault in central Afghanistan and Chaman fault in Pakistan, or through the Hindu Kush; however, the Cenozoic Aheqi fault zone is not truncated by the dextral Talas-Fergana fault in the northwestern margin of the Tarim basin (Xijiang Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, 1993). Based on satellite imagery, Wang et al. (1992) found that some Cenozoic folds are arranged en echelon, indicating a sinistral transpressional motion of the Aheqi fault. Nishidai and Berry (1990) also identified the sinistral strike-slip of Aheqi fault in their tectonic map of the Tarim basin.

A major fault zone between the Central Tianshan (sometimes spelled Tian Shan) and the South Tianshan is the Nikolaeev line. This line extends into central Asia, along the northern margin of Narun basin. It is cut by the right-lateral Talas-Fergana fault, then runs along the Alai Mountains and the Turkistan Mountains of Tadzikstan, terminates at the northern slope of Haratau in Uzbikstan (Milannoskee, 1989). The cutting of the Talas-Fergana fault and the indentation of the Pamir block obscure the westward extension of the Aheqi fault zone.

Although the Nikolaeev line is cut by the Talas-Fergana dextral fault north of Kashi, the Talas-Fergana fault does not terminate the Aheqi fault. The Carboniferous limestone of south Tianshan thrusted southward over the Mesozoic and Tertiary strata of the Tarim basin, showing the westward continuation tracing of the Aheqi fault; furthermore, we infer that the westward trending of the Aheqi fault runs along the northwestern boundary fault of the Pamir and into the Fanna fault and Chaman fault, based on the kinematic possibility of the northeast-trending sinistral strike-slip resulting from the collision between India and Asia (Lu Huafu et al., 1994). Another possible westward-trending branch of the Aheqi fault runs through the northern tip of the Pamir arc to the north boundary fault of the Tadjik-Karakum block.

The Aheqi fault is the northwestern boundary of the Tarim basin. To its north is the southwestern Tianshan Paleozoic orogenic belt. The Aheqi fault system includes the Aheqi fault and many other faults with similar and related kinematic features, such as the east-west- and east-northeast-trending Kalpin fault and Shajingzhi fault in the Kalpintag mountains (Dong Jia et al., 1998); therefore, the structures in Kalpintag as second-order faults might indicate the sinistral strike-slip motion of the Aheqi fault zone.

At the eastern end of the Aheqi fault zone, the Aheqi fault connects with the faults in Kuluketag. Some faults in Kuluketag, such as the Xindi fault, are northeast-directed thrusts, so that some pre-Sinian rocks override northeastward on the Quaternary sediments of the Bosten Lake basin (Guo et al., 1992). This feature is not marked on the Xinjiang regional geological map (Xijiang
 
 

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Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, 1993). As Allen and Vincent (1999) pointed out, some of the south-southwest-directed thrusts exist. Both the north-northeast- and south-southwest-directed thrusts are consistent with the sinistral movement of the Aheqi fault system as a transpressional tectonic element. The northward-thinning Cenozoic sediments on the Kongqi He Slope, south of the Kuluketag, imply the north-northeast-directed overthrusting in the Kuluketag (Jia et al., 1997). Because the north-northeast-directed thrusts are the dominant structures here, we ignored the south-southwest-directed thrusts in our map (Dong Jia et al., 1998).

KALPIN UPLIFT

The thrust sheets in Kalpin can be six rows, but sometimes only two or three rows appear. The thrust sheets are not simply parallel to each other; instead, they zigzag to form a very peculiar pattern in map view. Transverse faults or lateral ramps cannot explain the strong curvatures and the general geometry of these zigzagging structures. If these were interpreted as the features of strike-slip deformation, the structural pattern would be in two rows of simple parallel thrust sheets (Huafu Lu et al., 1997a; Dong Jia et al., 1998). A restorable structure would be a reasonable structure; therefore, the structural pattern in Kalpintag could be interpreted as the result of strike-slip deformation.

West of Aksu, the southernmost fault of eastern segment in the Kalpin Mountains is called the Shajingzi fault. Some second-order structures were identified (Jia et al., 1997; Lu Huafu et al., 1998). The Ordovician and Silurian strata were deformed into a series of small-scale north-northeast-striking folds, indicating left-lateral strike-slip of the Shajingzi fault. The northwest-trending right lateral strike-slip faults in Xiao'erblack, west of Aksu, are the R' shear planes of the Shajingzi fault (Jia et al., 1997; Lu Huafu et al., 1998). In addition, we observed some minor faults and slickenside with sinistral slip between the north-northwest-trending Bachu uplift and the east-west-trending Kalpin uplift at Sanchakou, north of Bachu County.

KUQA DEPRESSION

The fractures in the Kuqa depression were interpreted as R and X shears by Dong Jia et al. (1998, their figures 7 and 8). We describe them in more detail in this paper.

Near Kuruli in the northern Kuqa depression, small second-order fractures appeared between the upper Triassic Huangshanjie formation (T3h) and the middle Triassic Kelamayi formation (T2k) (Dong Jia et al., 1998, their figure 7). Their angular relation to the main shear plane suggests that the second-order shear planes belong to P, R, and X shear planes. These fractures offset each other; they are too small to be shown in our figure (Dong Jia et al., 1998, their figure 7). The P shear dips to 195° at an angle of 37°, and the R shear plane dips to 145° at an angle of 44°. These shears display a sense of sinistral slip. The X shear dips to 50° at an angle of 87°. This shear appears to display a sense of dextral slip. The mechanism analysis of brittle fractures (Woodcock and Schubert, 1994) reveals that the R and P shears have the same shearing sense with respect to the main shear plane, but the X plane takes the opposite shearing sense. Thus, we concluded that the main shear plane (dips to 179° at an angle of 39°) shows left-lateral strike-slip. This main shear plane is called a Kuruli fault.

The southward Kuqa River suddenly turns east-west at Kutaikelik, about 50 km north of Kuqa; this change is caused by faulting there. The nearly vertical Kutaikelik fault extends between the upper Jurassic (J3) and the upper Cretaceous (K2) to Tertiary strata (E1-2) (Dong Jia et al., 1998, their Figure 8). The calcareous conglomerate of Kumugelim formation (E1-2) is cut by several second-order left-lateral faults. The slickensides on the fault plane have also proven this feature of sinistral strike-slip. The Kutaikelik fault is extended to the west where it connects with the Heiyingshan fault and to the east where it links with the Yiqikelik fault (Jia Dong et al., 1996).

There is some evidence of orogen-parallel sinistral strike-slip beside the R, P, and X shearing planes in the Kuqa depression (Jia Dong et al., 1996). To the south, the Yaha, Tiergen, Qimen, and Hongqi structural zones are composed of a series of right-step en echelon normal faults. Quite a few new gas fields have been found in the structures of these zones (Jia et al., 1997).

Near the core of South Qiulitag anticline, an orogen-parallel sinistral strike-slip fault cuts off the anticline and leaves only its southern limb shown in the new seismic profiles [unpublished data of Tarim Petroleum Exploration and Development Bureau (CNPC)]. The strike of the fault is N50°E. The fault shows up clearly in satellite imagery.

Analyses of many seismic profiles demonstrated that most faults thrust southward, but some backthrusts can be found both in surface structures and seismic profiles (Jia Dong et al., 1997). There is an important south-dipping backthrust along the Paleocene evaporite in the subsurface Kelasu anticline beneath the western segment of the Yiqikelik-Kumukelim subbelt, which formed a
 
 

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triangle zone with the southward-thrusting duplex (Lu Huafu et al., in press).

NORTH TARIM UPLIFT

The trailing imbricate fans in the North Tarim uplift are complicated (Chen Chuming et al., 1998). We (Dong Jia et al., 1998) depicted the interference of the late Paleozoic northwest-trending anticlines and Mesozoic northeast-trending faults in the Yinmaili and Donghetang oil fields (Dong Jia et al., 1998). The northwest-trending folds are superimposed and cut by the northeast-trending thrusts in the western part of the uplift; therefore, it is not contradictory to Wei Guoqi et al.'s (1995) description of a flower structure being truncated by the basal Mesozoic (Jurassic) unconformity. Based on the growth strata (Huafu Lu et al., 1997b), we also found that northwest-trending anticlines were formed during the Triassic, indicating that the sinistral motion occurred again in the Mesozoic (Huafu Lu et al., 1997b). We believe that the sinistral motion occurred in the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic, and the dextral motion in the Mesozoic.

DISCUSSION

A northeast-east strike-slip fault is found in the northwestern margin of the Tarim basin. It is nearly parallel to the southern Tianshan orogenic belt. For a long time, models of mountain building have assumed crustal shortening in the direction perpendicular to the strike of mountain belt, and the relationship of orogens and basins also was interpreted based on this concept (Dewey and Burke, 1973). In recent years, it has been realized that large-scale strike-slip faulting parallel to or nearly parallel to the strike of mountain belts controlled the map view of mountain belts and their evolution, as well as the small-scale oroclinal tectonics within the mountain belt (Sengor, 1992). Because of the collision of the Indian subcontinent with the Eurasian plate, and especially because of the intrusion of the Pamir plateau, intensive compression and deformation with large-scale strike-slip displacement characterize central Asia. Such displacement may have led to crustal extrusion along strike-slip faults, and the Aheqi transpressional fault zone is one of these kinds. 

REFERENCES CITED

Editor's Note: The authors, Dong Jia, Huafu Lu, Chengzao Jia, and Guoqi Wei, are also listed as Jia Dong, Lu Huafu, Jia Chengzao, and Wei Guoqi.

Allen, M. B., and S. J. Vincent, 1999, Structural features of north Tarim basin: implications for regional tectonics and petroleum traps: discussion: AAPG Bulletin, v. 83, p. 1279-1283.

Chen Chuming, Lu Huafu, Wang Guoqiang, and Jia Dong, 1998, Analyses on superimposed structures in the North Tarim uplift, Tarim basin: Geological Journal of China Universities, v. 4, no. 3, p. 294-302.

Dewey, J. F., and K. Burke, 1973, Tibetan, Variscan and Precambrian basement reactivation: products of continental collision: Journal of Geology, v. 81, p. 683-692.

Dong Jia, Huafu Lu, Dongsheng Cai, Shiming Wu, Yangshen Shi, and Chuming Chen, 1998, Structural features of northern Tarim basin: implications for regional tectonics and petroleum traps: AAPG Bulletin, v. 82, no. 1, p.147-159.

Guo Linzhi, Shi Yangshen, Lu Huafu, Ma Ruishi, Yu Hongnian, Sun Yan, Chen Ihina, Zhang Qinglong, Wang Liangshu, Jia Dong, and Shu Liangshu, 1992, Two kinds of remote structural effects resulting from the India and Qinghai-Tibetan collision, in Li Qingbo, Dai Jinxin, Liu Ruqi, and Li Jiliang, eds., Symposium on research in modern geology: Nanjing, Nanjing University Press, p. 1-7.

Huafu Lu, Dong Jia, Chuming Chen, Dongsheng Cai, Shimin Wu, Guoqiang Wang, Linzhi Guo, Yangshen Shi, and D. G. Howell, 1997a, A new model deduced from Kalpin transpression tectonics and its implication to the Tarim basin: Proceedings of the 30th International Geological Congress, v. 14, p. 196-202.

Huafu Lu, Dong Jia, Chuming Chen, Dongsheng Cai, Shimin Wu, Guoqiang Wang, Linzhi Guo, and Yangshen Shi, 1997b, Evidence for growth fault-bend fold in the Tarim basin and its implications for fault-slip rates in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic: Proceedings of the 30th International Geological Congress, v. 14, p. 253-262.

Jia, C., Wei Guoqi, Wang Liangsh, Jia Dong, and Guo Zhaojie, 1997, Tectonic characteristics and petroleum, Tarim basin, China: Beijing, China, Petroleum Industry Press, 275 p.

Jia Dong, Lu Huafu, Cai Dongsheng, Wu Shiming, Chen Chuming, and Shi Yangshen, 1996, The strike-slip structures and Baicheng pull-apart basin in the Kuqa fold-thrust belt, northern Tarim basin: Journal of Nanjing University, v. 32, p. 17-22.

Jia Dong, Lu Huafu, Cai Dongsheng, and Chen Chuming, 1997, Structural analysis of Kuqa foreland fold-thrust belt in the northern margin of Tarim basin: Geotectonica et Metallogenia, v. 21, no. 1, p. 1-8.

Lu Huafu, D. G. Howell, D. Jia, D. Cai, S. Wu, C. Chen, Y. Shi, Z. C. Valin, and L. Guo, 1994, Kalpin transpression tectonics, northwestern Tarim basin, west China: International Geology Review, v. 36, p. 975-981.

Lu Huafu, Jia Dong, Cai Dongsheng, Wu Shimin, Chen Chuming, Shi Yangshen, and Guo Lingzhi, 1998, On the Kalpin transpression tectonics of northwest Tarim: Geological Journal of China Universities, v. 4, no. 1, p. 49-58.

Lu Huafu, Jia Dong, Chen Chuming, Liu Zhihong, and Wang Guoqiang, in press, Features of the thrust wedge of deformation belt in Kuqa rejuvenation foreland basin: Geological Sciences of China.

Milannoskee, E. E., 1989, Geology of USSR, part II: Moscow, Moscow University Press, 296 p.

Nishidai, T., and J. L. Berry, 1990, Structure and hydrocarbon potential of the Tarim basin (NW China) from satellite imagery: Journal of Petroleum Geology, v. 13, no. 1, p.35-58.

Sengor, A. M. C., 1992, Plate tectonics and orogeny, Tethys example (in Chinese): Shanghai, China, Fudan University Press, 182 p.

Wang, Q. M., T. Nishidai, and M. P. Coward, 1992, The Tarim basin, NW China: formation and aspects of petroleum geology: Journal of Petroleum Geology, v. 15, no. 15, no. 1, p. 5-34.

Wei Guoqi, Jia Chengzao, and Yao Huijun, 1995, The relation of thrust-strike slip structure and hydrocarbon potential in late Hercynian in north area of Tarim basin: Xinjiang Petroleum Geology, v. 16, p. 96-101.

Woodcock, N. H., and C. Schubert, 1994, Continental strike-slip tectonics, in P. L. Hancock, ed., Continental deformation: Oxford, Pergamon Press, p. 251-263.

Xijiang Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, 1993, Memoir on regional geology of Xijiang: Beijing, China, Geological Publishing House, 686 p. 


 
 

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Structural Features of Northern Tarim Basin: Implications for Regional Tectonics and Petroleum Traps: Discussion & Reply

Mark B. Allen, Stephen J. Vincent, Dong Jia, Huafu Lu, Chengzao Jia, and Guoqi Wei

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