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AAPG Bulletin


AAPG Bulletin, V. 95, No. 2 (February 2011), P. 191217.

Copyright copy2011. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.


Geochemical analysis of Atlantic Rim water, Carbon County, Wyoming: New applications for characterizing coalbed natural gas reservoirs

J. Fred McLaughlin,1 Carol D. Frost,2 Shikha Sharma3

1Wyoming State Geological Survey, Laramie, Wyoming; [email protected]
2Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming; [email protected]
3Department of Geology and Geography, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia; [email protected]


Coalbed natural gas (CBNG) production typically requires the extraction of large volumes of water from target formations, thereby influencing any associated reservoir systems. We describe isotopic tracers that provide immediate data on the presence or absence of biogenic natural gas and the identify methane-containing reservoirs are hydrologically confined. Isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon and strontium, along with water quality data, were used to characterize the CBNG reservoirs and hydrogeologic systems of Wyoming's Atlantic Rim. Water was analyzed from a stream, springs, and CBNG wells.

Strontium isotopic composition and major ion geochemistry identify two groups of surface water samples. Muddy Creek and Mesaverde Group spring samples are Ca-Mg-SO4–type water with higher 87Sr/86Sr, reflecting relatively young groundwater recharged from precipitation in the Sierra Madre. Groundwaters emitted from the Lewis Shale springs are Na-HCO3–type waters with lower 87Sr/86Sr, reflecting sulfate reduction and more extensive water-rock interaction.

To distinguish coalbed waters, methanogenically enriched was used from other natural waters. Enriched , between minus3.6 and +13.3permil, identified spring water that likely originates from Mesaverde coalbed reservoirs. Strongly positive , between +12.6 and +22.8permil, identified those coalbed reservoirs that are confined, whereas lower , between +0.0 and +9.9permil, identified wells within unconfined reservoir systems.

These results demonstrate that analysis provides immediate data to help identify Atlantic Rim groundwater sources, hydraulic reservoir confinement, springs associated with methanogenic coalbed reservoirs, areas of peak methanogenic activity, and to help assess gas potential and promote efficient CBNG production.

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