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Abstract

AAPG Bulletin, V. 100, No. 5 (May 2016), P. 723-742.

Copyright ©2016. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1306/02011614222

Effective flow properties of heterolithic, cross-bedded tidal sandstones: Part 2. Flow simulation

Benoît Y. G. Massart,1 Matthew D. Jackson,2 Gary J. Hampson,3 and Howard D. Johnson4

1Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP, United Kingdom; present address: Statoil ASA, Sandsliveien 90, Bergen 5254, Norway; [email protected]
2Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP, United Kingdom; [email protected]
3Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP, United Kingdom; [email protected]
4Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP, United Kingdom; [email protected]

ABSTRACT

Tidal heterolithic Previous HitsandstoneNext Hit reservoirs are heterogeneous at the submeter scale because of the ubiquitous presence of intercalated Previous HitsandstoneNext Hit and mudstone laminae. Core-plug Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit measurements fail to sample a representative volume of this heterogeneity. Here, we investigate the impact of mudstone drape distribution on the effective Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit of heterolithic, cross-bedded tidal sandstones using three-dimensional, surface-based “minimodels” that capture the geometry of cross beds at an appropriate scale. The impact of seven geometric parameters has been determined: (1) mudstone fraction, (2) Previous HitsandstoneNext Hit laminae thickness, (3) mudstone drape continuity, (4) toeset dip, (5) climb angle of foreset–toeset surfaces, (6) proportion of foresets to toesets, and (7) trough or tabular geometry of the cross beds.

We begin by identifying a representative elementary volume of 1 m3 (∼35 ft3), confirming that the model volume of 9 m3 (∼318 ft3) yields representative Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit values. Effective Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit decreases as the mudstone fraction increases, and it is highly anisotropic: vertical Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit falls to approximately 0.5% of the Previous HitsandstoneNext Hit Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit at a mudstone fraction of 25%, whereas the horizontal Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit falls to approximately 5% and approximately 50% of the Previous HitsandstoneNext Hit value in the dip (across mudstone drapes) and strike (parallel to mudstone drapes) directions, respectively. Considerable spread exists around these values, because each parameter investigated can significantly impact effective Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit, with the impact depending upon the flow direction and mudstone fraction. The results yield improved estimates of effective Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit in heterolithic, cross-bedded sandstones, which can be used to populate reservoir-scale model grid blocks using estimates of mudstone fraction and geometrical parameters obtained Previous HitfromNext Hit core and outcrop-analog data.

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