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AAPG Bulletin

Abstract

DOI: 10.1306/03162017174

Source potential and reservoir characterization of the Cambay Shale, Cambay Basin, India: Implications for tight gas and tight oil resource development

Mateen Hafiz,1 Naveen Hakhoo,2 Ghulam M. Bhat,3 Sudeep Kanungo,4 Bindra Thusu,5 Jonathan Craig,6 and Waquar Ahmed7

1Government Maulana Azad Memorial College, Jammu and Kashmir, India; Institute of Energy Research and Training (IERT), University of Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India; [email protected]
2IERT, University of Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India; Postgraduate Department of Geology, University of Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India; [email protected]
3IERT, University of Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India; Postgraduate Department of Geology, University of Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India; [email protected]
4Energy & Geoscience Institute (EGI), University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah; Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah; [email protected]
5IERT, University of Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India; Maghreb Petroleum Research Group, Earth Sciences Department, University College London, United Kingdom; [email protected]
6Eni Upstream and Technical Services, Milan, Italy; [email protected]
7Government Maulana Azad Memorial College, Jammu and Kashmir, India; IERT, University of Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India; [email protected]

ABSTRACT

New organic–geochemical investigations of the Eocene Cambay Shale (Cambay Basin, India) from five wells and an open-cast lignite mine reveal that the total organic carbon ranges from 0.37 to 10.68 wt. %, with an average of 2.43 wt. %. The pseudo–Van Krevelen diagram, hydrogen index versus the maximum pyrolysis yield temperature (Tmax) crossplot, and the visual Previous HitkerogenNext Hit assessment of the Cambay Shale indicate the dominance of type III Previous HitkerogenNext Hit, with some well samples showing mixed type III and II Previous HitkerogenNext Hit. The vitrinite reflectance values range between 0.46% and 0.7%, with Tmax values ranging from 387°C to 441°C and are consistent with an immature to early oil generation stage. The dominance of vitrinite macerals and high pristane–phytane (Pr/Ph) ratios (>6) of the well samples indicate an oxic to dysoxic depositional environment, whereas the presence of Botryococcus braunii and low Pr/Ph ratios (<1) in the lignite mine samples suggesting a more reducing brackish water environment. The estimation of hydrocarbons generation, expulsion, and retention data suggest a low retention of 10%–12% of generated hydrocarbons within the Cambay Shale. The mineralogical data show an abundance of clay minerals (average 62.9%), implying poor to moderate mineral brittleness index. The Previous HitkerogenTop type and maturity level along with the high clay content and poor to moderate brittleness indicate low fracability, thereby restricting the production potential of the Cambay Shale for tight gas or tight oil exploration.

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