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Devonian of Romania
Non-metamorphic Devonian rocks, dated on palaeontological evidence, are known only in the foreland area of the Romanian Carpathians: (1) the area of the Moesian Platform (marine shallow water and lagoonal facies, and (2) North Dabrogea (geosynclinal flyschoid facies). Red quartzitic sandstones in the adjoining area of the East European Platform might also belong to the Devonian.
In the area of the Moesian Platform, unfolded Devonian rocks extend over South Dobrogea and a large part of the Romanian Plain. Their thickness amounts to 2300 metres. Between the uppermost Silurian (with Eurypterus and Cardiola interrupta) and the Lower Devonian (with Asteropyge (Kayserops) Kochi, Tentaculites ornatus) there is a transitional zone, but the former unconformably overlies the Lower Ludlovian (with Pristiograptus (P) bohemicus, P. (p) colonus). Up to the Givetian the sequence consists mainly of black argillites. The Eifelian includes some sandstones with plant remains and the Givetian some brachiopod limestones. The very thick Upper Devonian (up to 1200 metres) consists of dark dolomites, limestones and argillaceous shales with interbedded anhydrites. This lagoonal facies grades upwards into the marine, calcareous Lower Carboniferous.
In North Dobrogea slightly metamorphosed Silurian shales are overlain by crinoidal limestones, possibly of Gedinnian age. The Coblenzian there consists of well-bedded sandstones and shales with a rich brachiopod assemblage. The Middle-Upper Devonian includes in the lower part a rhythmic sequence of sandstones and shales overlain by greenish shales with interbedded diabases, black silicolites and limestones rich in conodonts.
In the Romanian Carpathians, part of the outcropping pre-Carboniferous crystalline schists might also belong to the Devonian.
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