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Old Red Sandstone Basins of North America and Northwest Europe
Non-marine Devonian rocks occur in several well known areas on each side of the Atlantic and exhibit similar characters. Outcrops occur in the Appalachians of the U.S.A., Appalachian Canada, Arctic Canada, Southern England and Wales, Scotland, Norway, the Baltic area, Greenland and Svalbard. The formations are for the most part, though not in all cases, strongly distinct from the rocks beneath and their areal extent may be limited by contemporary faults, flexures or marked facies change. Thicknesses vary from nil to several thousands of metres, commonly within short distances. In Scotland, Appalachian Canada and Greenland contemporary volcanism was occasionally extensive. Although each outcrop area possesses a distinctive vertebrate fauna which may include agnatha, “placodermi” and osteichthyes, inter-regional correlation on the basis of these and plant remains is possible. Sedimentary features indicating fluvial, lagoonal or inter-tidal conditions are numerous and several formations are lacustrine deposits of differing types. A variable climate, locally warm-humid, is commonly indicated and the structural settings of the depositional areas are most commonly those of upland fronts and “intermontane” basins.
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