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The AAPG/Datapages Combined Publications Database

Indonesian Petroleum Association


9th Annual Convention Proceedings, 1980
Pages 523-546

Submarine Pipelining of High Pour Point Crude Oil

B. Gaban


Rheological behaviour of high pour point crude oil at ambient temperature prevents the crude from being readily pumped at temperatures below its pour point.

The critical problem in transporting this high wax content crude by pipeline is the necessity to maintain the flowing temperature somewhat above the pour point. It is commonly accepted that a viscosity of 10,000 cp is the limit for convenient handling, while 25,000 cp is the limit for pumpability.

Design considerations and utilization of polyurethane foam as heat insulation for submarine pipelines are discussed, together with operational background of approximately 65 nautical miles of insulated submarine pipelines in IIAPCO's production sharing contract area in the Java Sea.

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