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CO2 in South Sumatra – Observations and Prediction
Large quantities of natural gas has been discovered in South Sumatra since the early 1990's. The search for natural gas has resulted in significant discoveries at Gelam, Dayung, Sumpal, Betara, Gemah, Geragai, Rayun, Singa, and – of major importance – the multi-TCF Suban field. Markets in Central Sumatra, Singapore and, in the future, West Java are using natural gas to replace more costly oil.
Along with hydrocarbon gas, very high percentages of CO2 have been encountered. A predictive model of CO2 content is important in the search for future reserves. A review of the existing gas composition and stable carbon isotope data has given a basis for understanding the origins of South Sumatra CO2.
The data can be interpreted in terms of a mixing model of CO2 generated from organic sources (coals and shales) and CO2 generated from inorganic sources. The data are consistent with worldwide observations of low CO2 concentrations of gases derived from organic sources. Higher concentrations are more consistent with reservoir temperatures, and isotope values, which would be expected from carbonate dissociation or magmatic sources.
In general, CO2 is primarily controlled by the source and present day reservoir temperature/depth. No simple model can explain high CO2 (> 40%) gases in low temperature reservoirs. Secondary controls are also recognized as playing a role in the ultimate CO2 content of a reservoir. Tectonic history including lateral and vertical migration and paleo temperatures, reservoir lithology and mineral buffering also may come into play during the creation of a gas field.
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