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The Discovery and Development of Minas Field
The Minas field is located 35 km north of Pekanbaru, the capital of Riau province, Sumatra, Indonesia. The field was discovered in late 1944, and its discovery was a result of subsurface mapping prepared from data obtained by auger and counterflush drilling, and reflection seismic. The field is a broad low-amplitude anticline, with a productive area of 57,100 acres and 425 ft of oil column. The structure is extensively faulted, and some faults are effective barriers to fluid movement.
The main oil reservoirs are in the Sihapas Croup of Miocene age, and are grouped into 5 major sand units. The sands are fairly massive, fine to coarse grained, poorly sorted, with carbonaceous stringers. Individual sands vary widely in thickness across the structure. Locally, the sands tend to coalesce toward the flank of the structure and in other places they are effectively separated by shale lenses. Sand porosities are rather uniform, averaging about 28%. Analyses of core data, however, suggest some permeability variation, vertically and areally. The horizontal and vertical permeabilities appear to be approximately the same, with an arithmetic average of about 1500 md.
The production mechanism is a strong water drive and the producing history has been characterized by increasing water cuts, requiring frequent workovers to exclude water production. A shop-made cup packer assembly is being used successfully to isolate the sand intervals as they water out. Presently, Minas is producing 350,000 BOPD from 254 wells using submersible pumps with capacities ranging from 300 to 20,000 BFPD. To arrest excessive pressure decline, peripheral water injection was initiated in late 1969 in the south west portion of the field. The average injection rate is 300,000 BWPD.
With cumulative oil production of over 2 billion barrels, Minas is the largest known oil field in SE Asia and its discovery was an event of major significance in the petroleum industry.
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