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Mencos, J., J. A. Munoz, and S. Hardy, 2011, Three-dimensional geometry and forward numerical modeling of the Sant Corneli anticline (southern Pyrenees, Spain), in K. McClay, J. Shaw, and J. Suppe, eds., Thrust fault-related folding: AAPG Memoir 94, p. 283300.


Copyright copy2011 by The American Association of Petroleum Geologists.

Three-dimensional Geometry and Forward Numerical Modeling of the Sant Corneli Anticline (Southern Pyrenees, Spain)

J. Mencos,1 J. A. Munoz,2 S. Hardy3

1Institut de Recerca GEOMODELS and GGAC (Grup de Geodinamica i Analisi de Conques), Departament Geodinamica i Geofisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
2Institut de Recerca GEOMODELS and GGAC (Grup de Geodinamica i Analisi de Conques), Departament Geodinamica i Geofisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
3ICREA (Institucio Catalana de Recerca i estudis Avaneats) and GGAC (Grup de Geodinamica i Analisi de Conques), Departament Geodinamica i Geofisica, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain


This work was conducted under the financial support of the Modelizacion Estructural 4-D project (CGL2007-66431-C02-01). Research by J. Mencos is funded by a predoctoral grant Previous HitfromNext Hit the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion (2004-1824). We wish to acknowledge Grup de Geodinamica i Analisi de Conques (2001SGR-000074). Part of the Previous HitseismicNext Hit interpretation used The Kingdom Suite software, which was generously provided by Previous HitSeismicNext Hit Micro-Technology via the University Gift Program. Midland Valley is acknowledged for providing 2DMove and 3DMove, which were used for part of the Previous HitseismicNext Hit interpretation and Previous Hit3-DNext Hit reconstruction and visualization. We also acknowledge Bentley Systems, Inc. for providing MicroStation, which was used for Previous Hit3-DNext Hit digitization and Previous Hit3-DNext Hit reconstruction. Part of the Previous Hit3-DNext Hit reconstruction process was performed using GOcad by Paradigm. P. Arbues and Servei Geologic de Catalunya are acknowledged for providing mapping information. The manuscript has been improved by the comments of Jurgen Adam, Massimo Bonora, and two anonymous reviewers.


This work is based on a three-dimensional (Previous Hit3-DNext Hit) reconstruction methodology for geologic structures Previous HitfromNext Hit field and subsurface Previous HitdataNext Hit. The methodology consists of several steps: (1) collection and georeferencing of Previous HitdataNext Hit, i.e., Previous Hit3-DNext Hit digitalization; (2) analysis of Previous HitdataNext Hit and definition of a Previous Hit3-DNext Hit geometric and stratigraphic model, i.e., Previous HitstructuralNext Hit and stratigraphic analysis; and finally, (3) the reconstruction of key surfaces that form the structure, i.e., reconstruction of the reference surface and reconstruction of additional surfaces, both honoring the defined geometric model. The methodology has been Previous HitappliedNext Hit to a natural example, the Sant Corneli anticline, a thrust-related fold located in the southern Pyrenees. This fold, oriented approximately east–west, has a complex Previous Hit3-DNext Hit geometry, with stratigraphic and Previous HitstructuralNext Hit variations, both laterally and vertically. This chapter focuses on the study of the Late Cretaceous postrift series. Outcrop information has been collected to reconstruct the superficial geometry of the Sant Corneli anticline. Previous HitSeismicNext Hit profiles that cross the area have been interpreted to reconstruct the geometry of the thrust fault at depth. The reconstruction methodology at surface and at depth is made following the same workflow, adapting it to the different nature of the original Previous HitdataNext Hit sets. At the same time, the use of Previous Hit3-DNext Hit forward numerical modeling allows us to explore the relationship between the fold and the thrust, the main factors that influence fold development through space and time, and to find the kinematic model(s) that best fit the proposed Previous Hit3-DNext Hit reconstruction.

The main contribution of this work is the incorporation of forward modeling techniques in the Previous Hit3-DNext Hit reconstruction workflow to independently establish the relationship between the various reconstructed geologic surfaces. Once this relationship is known, it is possible to refine the reconstructed surfaces and integrate them in a single and comprehensive Previous Hit3-DNext Hit model that honors both the available Previous HitdataNext Hit and the established kinematic model. This technique is also used to analyze the possible kinematic evolution of a fault-related structure that best reproduces the deformed geometry obtained through the Previous Hit3-DNext Hit reconstruction process. Moreover, this study also improves the developed Previous Hit3-DNext Hit reconstruction methodology as it incorporates the use of isopach maps.

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