About This Item
Share This Item
Fracture surface structures (hackle plumes, arrest lines, origins) on coring-induced petal-centerline and disc fractures from three Appalachian Devonian shale cores indicate fracture sequence and propagation directions, relative propagation velocities, and tensile-stress distributions at failure.
Surface structures on coring-induced fractures are symmetrically and dimensionally related to the core. In contrast, surface structures on natural fractures, originating away from the core, are asymmetric and oversized. Plume asymmetry shows that stress intensity across natural fractures varied vertically during propagation.
Curviplanar petal-centerline fractures are propagated downcore as shown by convex downward arrest lines and hackle plumes that diverge downward about the core axis. Inclined petal sections curve to vertical from core margin toward core center. Some petals continue to spread vertically downcore, forming the centerline section. Petal-centerline fractures can change downcore from one preferred orientation to another, indicating differing orientation of stresses and thus of any fractures induced in a stimulation program. Petal curvature, absence of cored origins, and the 15-cm curvature radius of closely spaced arrest lines show that petal-centerline fractures originated in front of the bit's cutting surface. Chipped right-hand core to fracture margins, produced by plucking action of the it, and arrest line-hackle morphology show these fractures were drilled through after propagation.
Bed-parallel disc fractures started at bit level, within the core, at bedding irregularities. Hackle plumes indicate that spreading velocity of disc fractures was greatest toward core centers and decreased toward core margins in response to changes in tensile stress intensity.
End_of_Article - Last_Page 483------------