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Both the study of burial diagenesis and the study of present-day formation waters of Jurassic through Pleistocene formations from the Texas Gulf Coast document local vertical fluid transport of at least several kilometers. Evidence includes the following. (1) Discharge at the land surface of Mesozoic-derived brines as "bad water." (2) Emplacement of Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc mineralization by fluids derived from Mesozoic formations in salt dome cap rocks at or near the land surface. (3) Emplacement of uranium in Tertiary aquifers as a result of reduction by ascending reduced sulfur, presumably of Mesozoic origin. (4) Emplacement of calcite cement derived from Mesozoic strata in Tertiary sandstones. (5) Presence of fluids in Plio-Pleistocene rocks with chemical sig atures that could only have been derived from Mesozoic strata.
Material-transport calculations indicate that the volumes of fluid involved far exceed the volume of connate water deposited in the basin, strongly suggesting some mechanism of thermally driven convective flow.
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