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The AAPG/Datapages Combined Publications Database

AAPG Bulletin


Volume: 68 (1984)

Issue: 12. (December)

First Page: 1929

Last Page: 1929

Title: Petrographic Characterization of Coals in Kozlu and Kilic Formations (Westphalian A), Zonguldak, Turkey: ABSTRACT

Author(s): Selami Toprak, Maurice Deul


The Zonguldak coal region is about 130 km (80 mi) long and 30-50 km (18-31 mi) wide and is situated on the southwest coast of the Black Sea. The basin is the main bituminous coal-producing region of Turkey. It has a complicated faulted structure.

The Carboniferous of the Zonguldak region consists of three natural divisions: Alacaagzi (Namurian), Kozlu and Kilic (Westphalian A), and Karadon (Westphalian B, C, and D). The main concern of this study is the Kozlu and Kilic Formations, which have about 31 coal seams with a total thickness of 45 m (150 ft) of coal.

Estimated bituminous coal reserves in Turkey are 1.3 billion MT; about 5 million MT are produced each year and are used mainly for steel making. The coals have a high volatile and ash content. They are high volatile bituminous coals by the ASTM (American Society for Testing Materials) classification.

The coals show semi-bright luster and very fine banding. Clarain, fusain, and durain are common lithotypes; the predominant lithotype is vitrinous clarain. Few thick vitrain bands are present. Some Turkish bituminous coals contain a very high percentage of mineral matter. Clay minerals, pyrite, and calcite are the most common.

Ninety polished samples were taken from three different locations--Karadon, Uzulmez, and Kozlu--and analyzed under a reflected light microscope with oil immersion objectives.

The Turkish bituminous coals exhibit a complex combination of macerals and microlithotypes. Vitrinite is the most abundant maceral type, and exinite is the least abundant. The presence of a high amount of inertinite macerals and duroclarite as well as virtinertite microlithotypes suggests a lacustrine depositional environment for the coals. Successive coal seams, or even a single coal seam, indicate transgressions and regressions. Turkish bituminous coals match the properties of the Pictou coalfield coals in Canada and the Gondwana coals of South Africa, India, and Australia.

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