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Abstract

AAPG Bulletin, V. 99, No. 5 (May 2015), PP. 791805

Copyright copy2015. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1306/12221412196

Evaluation of the compositional changes during flooding of reactive fluids using scanning electron microscopy, nano-secondary ion mass spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, and whole-rock geochemistry

Udo Zimmermann,1 Merete Vadla Madland,2 Anders Nermoen,3 Tania Hildebrand-Habel,4 Silvana A. R. Bertolino,5 Aksel Hiorth,6 Reidar I. Korsnes,7 Jean-Nicolas Audinot,8 and Patrick Grysan9

1Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger, Norway; The National IOR Centre of Norway, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger, Norway; [email protected]
2Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger, Norway; The National IOR Centre of Norway, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger, Norway; [email protected]
3The National IOR Centre of Norway, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger, Norway; International Research Institute of Stavanger (IRIS), P.O. Box 8046, 4068 Stavanger, Norway; [email protected]
4The National IOR Centre of Norway, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger, Norway; International Research Institute of Stavanger (IRIS), P.O. Box 8046, 4068 Stavanger, Norway; [email protected]
5FaMAF, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Medina Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba, Argentina; [email protected]
6Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger, Norway; The National IOR Centre of Norway, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger, Norway; International Research Institute of Stavanger (IRIS), P.O. Box 8046, 4068 Stavanger, Norway; [email protected]
7Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger, Norway; The National IOR Centre of Norway, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger, Norway; [email protected]
8Département Science et Analyse des Matériaux (SAM), Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST; formely Centre de Recherche Public-Gabriel Lippmann), 41 Rue du Brill, 4422 Sanem, Luxembourg; [email protected]
9Département Science et Analyse des Matériaux (SAM), Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST; formely Centre de Recherche Public-Gabriel Lippmann), 41 Rue du Brill, 4422 Sanem, Luxembourg; [email protected]

ABSTRACT

Outcrop chalk of late Campanian age (Gulpen Formation) from Liège (Belgium) was flooded with BLTN12196eq1 in a triaxial cell for 516 days under reservoir conditions to understand how the non-equilibrium nature of the fluids altered the chalks. The study is motivated by enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes because dissolution and precipitation change the way in which oils are trapped in chalk reservoirs. Relative to initial composition, the first centimeter of the flooded chalk sample shows an increase in MgO by approximately 100, from a weight percent of 0.33% to 33.03% and a corresponding depletion of CaO by more than 70% from 52.22 to 14.43 wt.%. Except for Sr, other major or trace elements do not show a significant change in concentration. Magnesite was identified as the major newly grown mineral phase. At the same time, porosity was reduced by approximately 20%. The amount of BLTN12196eq2 in the effluent brine remained unchanged, whereas BLTN12196eq3 was depleted and BLTN12196eq4 enriched. The loss of BLTN12196eq5 and gain in BLTN12196eq6 are attributed to precipitation of new minerals and leaching the tested core by approximately 20%, respectively. Dramatic mineralogical and geochemical changes are observed with scanning electron microscopy–energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, nano secondary ion mass spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, and whole-rock geochemistry techniques. The understanding of how fluids interact with rocks is important to, for example, EOR, because textural changes in the pore space affect how water will imbibe and expel oil from the rock. The mechanisms of dissolution and mineralization of fine-grained chalk can be described and quantified and, when understood, offer numerous possibilities in the engineering of carbonate reservoirs.

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