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Abstract

AAPG Bulletin, V. 99, No. 8 (August 2015), PP. 14071453

Copyright copy2015. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1306/06181411110

Cenozoic paleogeography of the Andean foreland and retroarc hinterland of Colombia

Andrés Reyes-Harker,1 Carlos Fernando Ruiz-Valdivieso,2 Andrés Mora,3 Juan Carlos Ramírez-Arias,4 Guillermo Rodriguez,5 Felipe de la Parra,6 Victor Caballero,7 Mauricio Parra,8 Nestor Moreno,9 Brian K. Horton,10 Joel E. Saylor,11 Alejandro Silva,12 Victor Valencia,13 Daniel Stockli,14 and Vladimir Blanco15

1Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo, Ecopetrol, Bucaramanga, Colombia; [email protected]
2Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo, Ecopetrol, Bucaramanga, Colombia; [email protected]
3Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo, Ecopetrol, Bucaramanga, Colombia; [email protected]
4Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo, Ecopetrol, Bucaramanga, Colombia; [email protected]
5Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo, Ecopetrol, Bucaramanga, Colombia; [email protected]
6Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo, Ecopetrol, Bucaramanga, Colombia; [email protected]
7Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo, Ecopetrol, Bucaramanga, Colombia; [email protected]
8Instituto de Energia e Ambiente (IEE), Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; [email protected]
9Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo, Ecopetrol, Bucaramanga, Colombia; [email protected]
10Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712; [email protected]
11Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Houston, 312 Science and Research Building 1, Rm. 312, Houston, Texas 77204-5007; [email protected]
12Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo, Ecopetrol, Bucaramanga, Colombia; [email protected]
13School of the Environment, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2812; [email protected]
14Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712; [email protected]
15Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo, Ecopetrol, Bucaramanga, Colombia; [email protected]

ABSTRACT

New biostratigraphic zonations, core descriptions, sandstone petrography, facies analysis, and seismic information are compared with published detrital and bedrock geo- and thermochronology to build a Cenozoic paleogeographic reconstruction of the Andean retroarc region of Colombia, encompassing the ancestral Central Cordillera, Middle Magdalena Valley, Eastern Cordillera, and Llanos basin. We identify uplifted sediment source areas, provenance domains, depositional environments, and thickness changes to propose a refined paleogeographic evolution of eastern Colombia. We conclude that Cenozoic evolution of the northernmost Andes includes (1) a period of contractional deformation focused in the Central Cordillera and Middle Magdalena Valley that may have started by the Late Cretaceous, although thermochronological data points to maximum shortening and exhumation during the late Paleocene; (2) a period of slower deformation rates or even tectonic quiescence during the middle Eocene; and (3) a renewed phase of contractional deformation from the late Eocene to the Pleistocene/Holocene expressed in provenance, bedrock thermochronology, and increased subsidence rates in the Llanos foreland. The sedimentary response in the Llanos foreland basin is controlled by source area proximity, exhumation and shortening rates, relationships between accommodation and sediment supply, as well as potential paleoclimate forcing. This new reconstruction changes the picture of Cenozoic basin evolution offered by previous reconstructions, providing an updated chronology of deformation, which is tied to a more precise understanding of basin evolution.

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