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AAPG Bulletin


AAPG Bulletin, V. 105, No. 7 (July 2021), P. 1383-1403.

Copyright ©2021. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1306/12222019138

Comparison of gas, Klinkenberg, and liquid Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit of Previous HitsandstoneNext Hit: Flow regime and pore size

Tobias Orlander,1 Harald Milsch,2 and Ida Lykke Fabricius3

1Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark; [email protected]
2 GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, Potsdam, Germany; [email protected]
3Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark; [email protected]


Liquid Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit of sedimentary rocks is relevant in several contexts, but gas Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit is easier to measure, so liquid Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit is typically estimated Previous HitfromNext Hit gas Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit via empirical or semiempirical correction procedures. A frequently used and trusted procedure is the well-known Klinkenberg correction, which is based on the pressure dependence of gas Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit. However, Previous HitfromNext Hit gaseous and liquid flow-through experiments on a series of Fontainebleau, Castlegate, Bentheim, and Obernkirchen sandstones, this study indicates that the equivalent liquid Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit derived Previous HitfromNext Hit gas Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit via the Klinkenberg correction only compares with liquid Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit, when the gaseous flow adheres to Darcy’s law. The lower and upper limits to Darcy flow are defined by the Knudsen and Reynolds numbers, respectively. Both numbers can be estimated Previous HitfromNext Hit porosity and pore-throat distribution, so Previous HitfromNext Hit these properties, it is possible to assess the flow and pressure limits for the applicability of the Klinkenberg correction. For the studied sandstones, non-Darcy flow is indicated for the largest pores with diameters above approximately 10 μm, causing an erroneous Klinkenberg correction. Knudsen diffusion takes place in pores smaller than approximately 0.1 μm, but the contribution to the overall gas Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit of these small pores is, however, insignificant in these sandstones. Liquid Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit modeled Previous HitfromNext Hit contributions Previous HitfromNext Hit each pore size by using Kozeny’s equation and surface relaxation times Previous HitfromNext Hit nuclear magnetic resonance data shows that the largest pores have no positive effect on Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit because of the existence of pore throats; instead, they may have a negative effect on Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit because of turbulence.

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