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Europe and North Africa
Devonian Paleogeography and Reef Development of Northwestern and Central Europe
The geological history and reef development of northwestern and central Europe are outlined by twelve paleogeographic maps. Extensive warping, folding and fault movement during the Late Silurian to Early Devonian Periods on the eastern flank and foreland of the Caledonian fold belt caused the rise of highland terrain and growth of continental areas. The newly developed Variscan geosyncline was a narrow sea trough consisting only of a few small, individually developed basins. Lochkovian marine transgressions spread across large areas of the North (Old Red) Continent. Episodic tectonic movements during the Lower Devonian and Famennian led to the vast accumulation of deposits of the Old Red Sandstone and the near-shore siliciclastic facies in the geosyncline and around the Old Red Continent. The middle Givetian and lower Frasnian represent relatively stable phases during which extensive shallow marine carbonates were developed. Pelagic facies were extensively developed during late Frasnian and early Famennian time. Reef development began early in the Pragian and reached an acme in middle Givetian and early Frasnian. Reef growth tailed off during the Famennian and Strunian.
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